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without ordered structure. All solid substancies are either crystalline or amorphous


is the variation of wavespeed with direction, most reliably seen in minerals optical properties


is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal. It increases resistnánce to corrosion and can also be used for a number of cosmetic effects. Niobium and Titanium anodizes in a similar fashion resulting in a range of attractive colours.


caboche, (thick head) is a flat, round or oval polished gemstone without facets, rounded on the surface, flat on the bottom. Cabochon and cabochons cuts is mostly used on stron colored and opaque gemstones.


unit of weight for precious stones, equal to 200 milligrams

Conchoidal fractur

describes the way that brittle material break or facture when they do not follow any natural plans of separation. Material that break this way include quartz, jasper and other fine-grained or amorphous materials with a composition of pure silica such as obsidian. The fractures often result in curved breakage surface that resembles the rippling, gradual curves of a mussel shell, hence cochoid, derived from the greek word for this animal (konche).


a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure

Crystal structure

an arrangement of atoms in a crystal


measure of the compactness of a substance, compactnesstäthet, molekyltäthet

Earth mined

gemstones retrived without mining


flat faces on geometric shapes. Gemstones commonly have facets cut into them in order to improve their appearance by allowing them to reflect light.


Traditionally, only four stones classifies as precious gems: the Diamond, Ruby, Sapphire and Emerald. They are all transparent, have high clarity and colour in its purest form, and the are also very hard


the science dealing with gemstones.


all minerals and rocks that is considered decorative but still not so rare as gems, is called gemstones, or semi-precious gemstones. This don't always reflect on the prizing though.

Gold filled

gold filled material is composed by a solid layer of gold, mechanically bonded to a base metal. The surface is gold and not plated, and tests have shown that high-quality pieces have the same appearance as 14 ct gold (58% gold), with high durability and even with daily wear can last up to 30 years.

Gold plating

a.k.a elektro plating, is a method for applying a gold layer on other, chaper metal. Over the years, methods have improved but the risk of an alergic reaction when the the gold plate waers off remains. Sometimes the manufacturer declare the thickness of the gold layer, but gold filled material still have better durability.


short for inner diameter. Useful measures in chainmaille and when threading material through wholes, when the measurement of outher size doesn't reflect on your work.


occurs because each type of cone responds to a broad range of wavelengths, so that different combinations of light can produce an equivalent receptor response and the same tristimulus values or color sensation


a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic representable by a chemical formula, and has an ordered atomicand crystal structure


the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical properties of minerals, as well as mineral origin and formation, classification, geographical distribution, and utilization


definitions of hardness in materials based on ten natural minerals


a.k.a columbium, is a rare, grey, soft but very strong metal. The name derives from Tantalus daughter Niobe in greek mythology. Brazil is the leading producer of niobium and ferroniobium, an alloy of niobium and iron.  Niobium is used mostly in alloys, the largest part in special steel such as that used in gas pipelines. Although these alloys contain a small percentage of niobium it enhances the strength of the steel considerably. Niobium's low toxicity and ability to be colored by anodization are particular advantages when used in jewellry.


A octahedral prism consist of two octahedra connected to each other via 8 triangular prism. The triangular prism are joined to each other via their square faces.


not translucent or non transparent


(crystal system) is one of the seven lattice point groups. It results from stretching a cubic lattice along two of its orthogonal pairs by two different factors, resulting in a rectangular prism with a rectangular base (a by b) and height (c), such that a, b and c are distinct. All three bases intersect at 90° angles. The three lattice vectors remain mutually orthogonal.



Pandora is a danish company who designs and sell jewellry. The name might be inspired by Pandora's box (see wikipedia). The jewellry is made in factories in Thailand.


an optical phenomenon in which a substance appears to be different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light.


from the french word 'perle', originally from the Latin perma meaning leg, after the ham- or mutton leg-shaped bivalve.

Rocaille/rocaille bead

small beads of plastic or glass where the size is calculated on how many beads is required in a inch, or 2 cm. This result names the beads with sum beads/0 -  11/0, 15/0 etc.


is a naturally occuring material that is broken down by processes by weathering and erosion, subsequently transported by wind, water or ice, falls out and forms soil wich eventually become rock.


Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by mass of silver and 7.5% by mass of other metals, usually copper. The sterling silver standard has a minimum millesimal fineness of 925. Fine silver, for example 99.9% pure silver, is generally too soft for producing functional objects; therefore, the silver is usually alloyed with copper to give it strength while preserving the ductility and appearance of the precious metal. Other metals can replace the copper, usually with the intention of improving various properties of the basic sterling alloy. Argentium 935 silver is such an alloy were germanium have replaced the copper.


see-trough, either it reflects the incoming light or absorbs it


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Latest update: 22 september 2015