Start
News
Jewellry
Findings
About Pretty Ogr
Contact us
Policies
Misc

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wordlist4

Birthstones4 

Astrology4

Chakra4

Links4

Gem facts 6

Downloads4

 

Here is some facts about precious gems and semi-precious gemstones

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V X Y Z  4


Agate is a cryptocrystalline variety of silica, mainly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of colour. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks and can be common in certain metamorphic rocks (formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are subjected to high pressures and temperatures).
Most agates occur as nodules in volcanic rocks or ancient lavas, in former cavities produced by volatiles in the original molten mass, which were then filled, wholly or partially, by siliceous matter deposited in regular layers upon the walls.
Agate has also been known to fill veins or cracks in volcanic or altered rock underlain by granitic intrusive masses. Such agates, when cut transversely, exhibit a succession of parallel lines, often of extreme tenuity, giving a banded appearance to the section. Such stones are known as banded agate, riband agate and striped agate.Theophrastus, a Greek philosopher and naturalist, found and named the stone along the banks of the river Achates during 4-300 BC. Colourful agates and other chalcedonies were obtained over 3,000 years ago from the Achates River, now called Dirillo, in Sicily.

Agate stands for health and safety.


Akoya saltwater pearls are cultured pearls produced in the so-called Akoya oyster (lat. Pinctada fucata martensii and Pinctada fucata chemnitzii). Main producers are Japan, China, Vietnam, South Korea and Australia. This mollusk is found and used mainly in Japan and China. Renowned for their luster is considered as the classic Akoya pearl. They are white or cream coloured with the harmonic frequency colour of pink, silver or cream.

The Akoya oyster is the smallest pearl producing oyster used in pearl farming today, so Akoya pearls tend to be small, about 2 to 11 millimeters, but is also known to be the most consistent round or almost round beads. This makes them ideal as regards the smoothness of the pearl jewelery strings which e.g. bracelets.

5


Alexandrite is a chrysoberyl which is an aluminate of beryllium and belongs to the Spinel group and is situated on 8.5 on the Mohs scale. Alexandrite is a strongly pleochroic (trichroic) crystal and emerald green, red and orange yellow colours in partially polarized light, depending on the display orientation. The most distinctive feature is that it changes the colour in artificial light compared to daylight. It is a physiological response of the human eye in a particular part of the visible spectrum.
According to a popular story Alexandrite was discovered by the Finnish mineralogist Nils Gustaf Nordenskiöld (1792-1866) who gave the stone the name to honor Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Deposits are found in Russia, Brazil, India, Madagascar and Sri Lanka.
Alexandrite is said to have healing properties for the pancreas, spleen and nerv system and to be useful in the treatment of leukemia. It also supposed to balance the wearer's emotional state and intensify feelings of love.
Alexandrite will also increase the wearer's confidence, self-esteem, success and happiness.

5


Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of feldspar. The name comes from the Amazon River where some green stones previously have been found, but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon region.
The presence of Amazonite is limited, and mined almost exclusively in Ilmenbergen, Russia, where it occurs in granitic rocks. More recently, high-quality crystals have been found in Pike's Peak, Colorado, together with smoky quartz, orthoclase and albite in a coarse or granite pegmatite.
Crystals of Amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park, El Paso County. Other locations in the US that provides Amazonite is Morefield Mine in Amelia, Virginia. It also occurs in Madagascar, India, Kenya, Namibia, Russia and Brazil, and Sweden.
For many years the source of the colour was a mystery; It was assumed that it came from copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colours. Later studies indicate that the blue-green colour is a result of small amounts of lead and water.
Amazonite increases the sensitivity and awareness of your thoughts, feelings and actions towards other people. It is a stone for those who want to go their own way and take responsibility for their life, and it supports all kinds of change. Amazonite gives you the courage to break up, and choose the path according to your innermost desire.

5


Amber is fossilized tree resin, mainly from the pine tree family (Pinus succinifera). I occurs as lumps or drops and may contain fossils from plants or insects, wich increase the price. The color is usually yellow, brown or reddish, shiny and translucent or nearly transparent. Colours like black, green, violet, milky white or blue-black may also occur. If burned, Amber gives a pleasant aromatic pine scent. In its natural form, Amber is often matte due to numerous tiny blisters or cracks, but the quality can be improved by cooking it in oil and artifical colouring. This is a quite common procedur. Less usuable small pieces can be pressed together to form larger, more sellable pieces. Amber was early appreciated in Europe and have been collected and used since the Stone Age. Amber occurs in almost all of northern and central Europe, but also in materials including Spain, Italy, Romania, Japan and Myanmar. The finest Amber is found in the south Baltic Sea, where the resin is succinit. It is so light weighted that waves throw Amber pieces from the ocean floor up on to the shore. Amber is very soft, with a hardness of 2 to 3 it can easly be processed. It is regarded as a gemstone and used in ornaments and jewellry. To be consider as genuine it must be at  least 20 miljon years old.

Jewellry made of Amber was considered to protect against witchcraft and evil forces.  Its was also said to have positive effect against all sort of diseases as gout, hysteria and stomach pain. Lately it has become popular in dog collars as protection against tics, wich actually works, perhaps due to Amber having an electrical charge.

5


Amethyst is a violet purple variety of quartz. The name comes from the Greek expression 'a methustos' meaning "not drunk". Amethyst was considered to be a strong antidote for drunkenness, which is why wine goblet often was made out of amethyst.
In mythologi, it said that the Greek god of wine, Dionysus, was courting a maiden named Amethystos, but she rejected him. She prayed to the gods to remain chaste, and the goddess Artemis responded by turning her into a white stone. Humbled by Amethystos desire Dionysus poured wine over the stone as a offering, and the white crystals were stained purple.
In the Middle Ages soldiers weared amethysts in combat as it is believed to have a healing property and beads of amethyst were found in graves in England. The most common finding places for amethyst are Brazil, but it is also found in Uruguay and Madagascar. In Sweden, amethyst have been used as gemstones at least since the Viking times.

Amethyst stands for happiness, strength and health.

5


Andesine is a silicate mineral, a member of the plagioclase feldspar solid solution series. The plagioclase feldspars are a continuous solid solution series and as such the accurate identification of individual members requires detailed optical study, chemical analysis or density measurements. Andesine was first described in 1841 for an occurrence in the Marmato mine in Colombia. The name is for the Andes due to its abundance in the andesite lavas in those mountains. In the early 2000s, red and green gemstones began to be marketed under the name of 'Andesine'. After some controversy, these gemstones were subsequently discovered to have been artificially coloured. Andesine occurs in intermediate igneous rocks such as diorite, syenite and andesite. It also occurs as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks.

5


Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal. The colour is often shades of green, blue-green or brown but apatite can also be colourless, yellow or violet. Apatite is one of a few minerals that are produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems and is the main component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. The hardness is 5 on the Mohs scale.
Apatite is infrequently used as a gemstone. Transparent stones of clean colour have been faceted, and chatoyant specimens have been cabochon cut. Key sources of apatite are Brazil, Burma and Mexico. Other sources are Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka and the United States. The apatite that occurs in Sweden is almost exclusively a mixture of calcium phosphate and calcium fluoride are present as assessoriskt mineral in most eruptive rocks. It can form large, well-formed crystals in passages of pegmatit.
In apatite iron ores, the content may amount to 5-10% as it does in mines in Kirunavaara, Leveäniemi, Malmberget and Grängesberg, Sweden.

5


Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina, "water of the sea") is a blue or cyan variety of beryl. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. The deep blue version of aquamarine is called maxixe. Maxixe is commonly found in Madagascar. Its colour fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment, though the colour returns with irradiation.
Aquamarine is beside the green emerald the most famous gemstone variety of the mineral beryl; Other variations Heliodor (yellow), Morganite (pink) and Gosherit (white) and Bixbite (red), also called "red emerald"
In the US Aquamarine is found on Mt. Antero, central Colorado and in Big Horn Mountains, near Powder River Pass, Wyoming. In Brazil Aquamarine is mained in Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Bahia and minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. Other mining locations are Colombia, Zambia, Madagascar, Malawi, Tanzania and Kenya.
The largest aquamarine of gem quality ever mined was found in Marambaia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1910. It weighed over 110 kg with the dimension 48.5 x 42 cm in diameter.
Aquamarine is the birthstone of March and gives you purity, clarity and courage in communication. It helps you express your inner playfulness and creativity.

5


Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence. The most common colour of aventurine is green, but it may also be orange, brown, yellow, blue, or gray. Chrome-bearing fuchsite (a variety of muscovite mica) is the classic inclusion, and gives a silvery green or blue sheen. Oranges and browns are attributed to hematite or goethite.
Aventurine is found in various locations in Brazil, Chile, India, the former Soviet Union and Spain. The majority of the green and blue-green aventurines are derived from Mysore and Madras, India. The name aventurine derives from the Italian "a ventura" meaning "by chance". This is an allusion to the lucky discovery of aventurine glass or goldstone at some point in the 18th century. Although it was known first, goldstone is now a common imitation of aventurine and sunstone.

Like all quartzes, Aventurine promote your health. It stands for happiness, money and health.

5


Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits, it is also known as Chessylite after resort at Chessy-les-Mines, near Lyon, France. Azurite has been known since ancient times, and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder Natural History during the Greek name kuanos (cyan) and the Latin name caeruleum (blue). Azurite is exceptionally deep and clear, and have tended to be associated with deep blue colour and winter sky. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this compound, as both Azurite and azure derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward, an area known for another deep blue stone, lapis lazuli.

5


Basanite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock with aphanitisk to porphyritic texture and belongs to the jasper family. Minerals are usually abundant unit feldspathoid (nepheline or leucite), plagioclase and augite with olivine and less concentrations of iron-titanium oxides such as magnetite and ilmenite-ulvospinel; minor alkali feldspar may be present. Clinopyroxene (augite) and olivine are common as phenocrysts and in the matrix. The augite contains significantly greater titanium, aluminium and sodium than that in typical tholeiitic basalt. Quartz is absent, as are orthopyroxene and pigeonite.
Basanite occurs both on continents and islands. For example, together with basalts, they are produced by hotspot* volcanism in Hawaii and the Comoros.


* Hotspots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle. They may be on, near to, or far from tectonic plate boundaries. Currently, there are two hypotheses that attempt to explain their origins. One suggests that they are due to hot mantle plumes that rise as thermal diapirs from the core-mantle boundary. An alternative hypothesis postulates that it is not high temperature that causes the volcanism, but lithospheric extension that permits the passive rising of melt from shallow depths. This hypothesis considers the term "hotspot" to be a misnomer, asserting that the mantle source beneath them is, in fact, not anomalously hot at all.

5


Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate and its hexagonal crystals may be very small or range to several meters in size. Pure beryl is colourless, but it is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colours are green, blue, yellow, red, and white. Aquamarine is a blue or cyan variety of beryl and Emerald, green, is the rarest form of beryl, red is called bixbit and pink Morganite. Depending on how pure beryl is it can be completely transparent as Goshenit. The name Beryl derived from Latin (Beryllus) and Greek beryllos which means "precious blue-green sea coloured stone." Beryl is also used to produce beryllium, a light metal that is common to the alloy, particularly in aircraft manufacture. It has a hardness of 7.5-8.

Beryl is located in Sweden, Norway, Central Europe, Ireland and Russia as well as in Brazil, Colombia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and North America. See further under the respective names.
Beryl is said to give you the courage to affirm our feelings.
It helps you to get rid of prejudice and intolerance.

5


Bronzite is a member of the pyroxene group of minerals, belonging with enstatite and hypersthene to the orthorhombic series of the group. Rather than a distinct species, it is really a ferriferous variety of enstatite, which owing to partial alteration has acquired a bronze-like sub-metallic luster on the cleavage surfaces. Enstatite is magnesium silicate with the magnesium partly replaced by small amounts (up to 12%) of Fe+2. In the bronzite variety the iron oxide ranges up to 30%, and with still more iron there is a passage to hypersthene. The ferriferous varieties are liable to a particular kind of alteration, known as schillerization, which results in the separation of the iron as very fine films of oxide and hydroxides along the cleavage cracks of the mineral. The cleavage surfaces therefore exhibit a metallic sheen or schiller, which is even more pronounced in hypersthene than in bronzite. The colour of Bronzite is green or brown.

Masses sufficiently large for cutting are found in Kupferberg in the Fichtelgebirge, and in Kraubat near Leoben in Styria.
Bronzite is considered to assist in muscle pain and cramps, especially in the shoulders. It gives you the courage to be yourself and strengthens your self-asteem.
It promotes your spiritual development, beauty and sophistication and gives you insight into caring and love. It is also said to boost hearing, the sense of tones and sounds, making it excellent for singers and musicians.

5


Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is an orange to brownish mineral often used as gemstones and belongs to the group kalcedoner. The same is often mixed with Sard (sometimes Sardonyx) generally harder and darker. (The difference is not clearly defined, and the names are often used interchangeably.) The colour can vary greatly, from pale orange to an intense almost-black colour.

Carnelian has been found in Bronze Age layers of Crete in a form that proved that it was used in handicrafts. In Roman times it was used carnelian general to make engraved gems for signet rings for correspondence or other important documents since the hot wax will not stick to carnelian. Sard was used for Assyrian cylinder seals, Egyptian and Phoenician scarabs and early as Greek and Etruscan jewels. The Hebrew name carnelian, akin to similar words in several Romance languages, comes from the medieval Latin corn Eolus, derived from the Latin word cornum, dogwood cherries, whose translucent red fruits resemble stone. Oxford English Dictionary says that carnelian (carnelian), is a corruption of the Latin caro, carnis, meat. According to Pliny the Elder, the SARD gets its name from the city of Sardis in Lydia, but it is more likely comes from the Persian word Sered, which means yellow-red.

Most carnelian processed comes from India, Brazil or Uruguay but is also found in Germany and Siberia.

5


Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of the minerals quartz and moganite. These are both silica minerals, but they differ in that quartz has a trigonal crystal structure, while moganite is monoclinic. Chalcedony has a waxy luster, and may be semitransparent or translucent. It can assume a wide range of colours, but those most commonly seen are white to gray, grayish-blue or a shade of brown ranging from pale to nearly black.

The name chalcedony comes from the Latin chalcedonius (alternatively spelled calchedonius). The name appears in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia as a term for a translucid kind of Jaspis. The name is probably derived from the town Chalcedon in Asia Minor. The Greek word khalkedon (χαλκηδών) also appears in the Book of Revelation.

Chalcedony promotes creativity, courage and strength. It protects against pregnancy and strengthens compassion and patience.

5


Charoite is a rare silicate mineral, first described in 1978 and named after the Chara River. Though reportedly discovered in the 1940s, it was not known to the outside world until 1978. It has been reported only in Siberia, Russia, and found where a syenite of the Murunskii Massif has intruded into and altered limestone deposits producing a potassium feldspar metasomatite.

Charoite is translucent lavender to purple in colour with a pearly lustre. Charoite is strictly massive in nature, and fractures are conchoidal. It has an unusual swirling, fibrous appearance, sometimes chatoyant, that, along with its intense colour, can lead many to believe at first that it is synthetic or enhanced artificially. It is said to be opaque and unattractive when found in the field; a fact that may have contributed to its late recognition.

Charoit used as a decorative stone and sometimes a gemstone, generally as a cabochons in a setting.
It stands for love, strength and health.

5


Chinese Painting Stone is a polished dendritic siltstone** with a hardness of 5-6- It was formed by ancient river silt which changed into a solid rock over a long period of time. The patterns are formed over the ages by weathering and by the seepage of iron, manganese, and chlorine by interaction with volcanic ash. It was discovered in 1979 and is available in a very limited access because it is only available in a rugged mountain area in Guangxi Province, China. The rocks are cut, polished and varnished to bring out the natural beauty in their amazing patterns. In China it is also called Guo Hua stone or "flower and grass stone". The name Chinese painting stones refer to the similarities between the stones patterns and Chinese painting style, the stones patterns are natural and not painted or enhanced in any way. These stones are absolutely stunning and will make an exceptional conversation piece and will bring a whole new dimension to your home.

The Chinese Painting stone has not been given any sertain specific properties yet, but arranged together with bonzai tree it gives a sense of place for your event. They also form a beautiful quality gift to those who have an innate understanding of nature and art.

 

**Silt is a fine-grained soil that has grain size from 0.002 to 0.063 mm, between sand and clay.

5


Chrysocolla is a hydrated copper cyclosilicate mineral. The structure of the mineral has been questioned, as spectrographic studies suggest material identified as chrysocolla may be a mixture of the copper hydroxide spertiniite and chalcedony. It is of secondary origin and forms in the oxidation zones of copper ore bodies. Associated minerals are quartz, limonite, azurite, malachite, cuprite, and other secondary copper minerals. Chrysocolla is typically found as botryoidal or rounded masses and crusts, or vein fillings. When the colour is light, it is sometimes confused with turquoise mand if its colour is darker it is called Lapis Chrysocolla.

Notable findings include Bacan Island Indonesia, Israel, Democratic Republic of Congo, Chile, Cornwall in England, and Arizona, Utah, Idaho, New Mexico, Michigan, and Pennsylvania in the United States.

Among the Native Americans is a healing stone that strengthens the body's resistance and soothes upset feelings. It counteracts dizziness, gives clarity of thought and a neutral attitude during turbulence. It can also be used to reduce nervousness and irritability. Chrysocolla stands for love, strength and health.

5


Chrysoprase, crysophrase or chrysoprasus is a gemstone variety of chalcedony (a cryptocrystalline form of silica) that contains small quantities of nickel. Its colour is normally apple-green, but varies to deep green. The darker varieties of chrysoprase are also referred to as prase. (However, the term prase is also used to describe chlorite-included quartz, and to a certain extent is a colour-descriptor, rather than a rigorously defined mineral variety.)

Chrysoprase consists of crystals, so fine that they can not be seen as distinct particles at normal magnification. This sets it apart from rock crystal, amethyst, citrine and other varieties of crystalline quartz which are basically transparent and formed from easily recognized six-sided crystals. Other members of the cryptocrystalline family is the agate, carnelian and onyx. Unlike the emerald with its green colour of chromium, wearing chrysoprase trace amounts of nickel compounds in the form of very small inclusions.

The most known deposits of chrysoprase are Queensland Australia, Germany, Poland, Russia, Arizona, California and Brazil. Deposit in Szklary, Lower Silesia, Poland, was probably the largest European presence and possibly the largest in the world. A closely similar to the mineral chalcedony chrysoprase is where the colour comes in chrome rather than nickel.

Chrysoprase stands for protection and health.

5


Citrine is a variety of quartz whose colour ranges from a pale yellow to brown due to ferric impurities. Natural citrines are rare; most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. However, a heat-treated amethyst will have small lines in the crystal, as opposed to a natural citrine's cloudy or smokey appearance. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visually, but they differ in hardness. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine, with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal, which is then referred to as ametrine.

Citrine is one of three traditional month rocks for November. It stands for money, strength, happiness and health.

5


Dendrite is used as the name of precious and semi-precious stones with visible patterns caused by geological processes rather than biological. Dendritic stones can be easily mistaken for fossils and dendrites is also called pseudofossil. The patterns often resemble biological materials such as moss or leaves but occur by other minerals penetrates up through the mineral (percolating) as fissures.

Opals with these patterns is called Dendrite Opal while dendrite Agate is called Moss Agate.

5


Diamonds is a form of carbon and the hardest substance occurs in nature. The name comes from the Greek adamas which means invincible. Initially, the diamond is formed when coal is compressed at very high pressure and high temperature of about 150-200 meters. A rough diamond is formed and therefrom is then sanded diamonds in a predetermined pattern. Diamond is heat conductive, electrically insulative and has a very high refractive index, which gives it special glittering appearance. A diamond is valued based on its 4 "C" - Carat, Clarity, Colour and finally Cut.

As far as we know, diamonds were recovered in India for over 4000 years ago but it was not until 1456, when Louis de Berqueur discovered how diamonds could be cut, that interest awakened. First, in the 1700s made finds of diamonds in Brazil and in 1867 was born the modern diamond and diamond grinding industry, the findings of diamonds in Hopetown, Kimberley, South Africa. Still, one of these companies, De Beers, dominates the market and may on its own can affect the price of rough diamonds. Machining / grinding industry is most concentrated in the Netherlands, the USA, Israel and India.

Two thirds of all diamonds in the world come from Africa, mostly Angola, Botswana, Central African Republic, the DRC, Namibia, Sierra Leone and South Africa. Recently, diamonds found in Canada, Siberia, Russia and Australia. Has also been found in Sweden, for example Alnön and Lapland.

5


Dinosaurie bones is a so-called subfossil. The term subfossil can be used to refer to remains, such as bones, nests, or defecations, whose fossilization process is not complete, either because the length of time since the animal involved was living is too short (less than 10,000 years) or because the conditions in which the remains were buried were not optimal for fossilization. Subfossils are often found in caves or other shelters where they can be preserved for thousands of years. The main importance of subfossil vs. fossil remains is that the former contain organic material, which can be used for radiocarbon dating or extraction and sequencing of DNA, protein, or other biomolecules. Additionally, isotope ratios can provide much information about the ecological conditions under which extinct animals lived. Subfossils are useful for studying the evolutionary history of an environment and can be important to studies in paleoclimatology.

Subfossils are often found in depositionary environments, such as lake sediments, oceanic sediments, and soils. Once deposited, physical and chemical weathering can alter the state of preservation.

5


Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral that forms complete solid solution series with hedenbergite and augite. The colour varies but is usually green. It has a Mohs hardness of six. Diopside is found in ultramafic igneous rocks, and in a variety of metamorphic rocks. It is an important mineral in the Earth's mantle. Occurrences are reported in Canada, South Africa, Russia, Brazil, and a wide variety of other locations, like in the US. Gemstone quality diopside is found in two forms: the black star diopside (a.k.a Cats Eye) and the  chrome diopside, who has a rich green colour; (Due to the deep green nature of the gem they are sometimes referred to as Siberian emeralds). Violane is a manganese-rich variety of diopside, violet to light blue in colour. Diopside based ceramics and glass-ceramics have potential applications in various technological areas as in the field of biomaterials, nuclear waste immobilization and sealing materials in solid oxide fuel cells.
Diopside is said to cleanse the body and makes it easier to induce emotions. It strengthens the intellect to collaborate, and gives a greater mental insight.

5


Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl, coloured green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the 10 point Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor.

Emeralds, like all coloured gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters – the four Cs of Connoisseurship: Colour, Cut, Clarity and Crystal. A fine emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue, but also a high degree of transparency to be considered a top gem.

In the 1960s the American jewelry industry changed the definition of 'emerald' to include the green vanadium-bearing beryl as emerald. As a result, vanadium emeralds purchased as emeralds in the United States are not recognized as such in the UK and Europe. In America, the distinction between traditional emeralds and the new vanadium kind is often reflected in the use of terms such as 'Colombian Emerald.

Emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo, Coscuez, and Chivor. They are also found in Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, India, Italy, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Tanzania, United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In the US, emeralds have been found in Connecticut, Montana, Nevada, North and South Carolina. In 1998 emeralds were discovered in the Yukon.

The Emerald stands for love, health and money.

5


Eudialyte (a.k.a Almandine) is a cyclosilicatemineral formed in alkaline igneous rocks. The name derives from the Greek word for "well biodegradable". Eudialyte was first described in 1819 after the discovery in southwestern Greenland. Eudialyte use as semi-precious stone is limited because of its rarity, but is more of primary interest as a collector minerals.

Eudialyte brings positive vibrations and has the ability to fill your life with love energy. It has a strong ability to cause that coincidences and synchronization occurs in your life.

5


Feldspar is a mineral group consisting of aluminum silicate of sodium, potassium or calcium crystallized from magma. There are two types of feldspar and these are potassium feldspar, bright red-brown or red, and plagioclase, gray, white, or in some cases slightly beige.

Chinese feldspar / Chinese Feldspar is much debated among jewelers. The Jewelers Ethics Association studies of the surface of the feldspar from Tibet, China, containing have shown traces of copper flux which suggests that the stone has been heated in the presence of copper (Cu). Therefore it would not be 'authentic' red feldspar as opposed to the originating in the Congo.

5


Fluorite, or fluorspar, is a mineral containing calcium fluoride. Fluorite may be drilled into beads and used in jewelry, although due to its relative softness it is not widely used as a semiprecious stone. It is also used for ornamental carvings. Today it is primarily related to crystal healing.

It occurs in oktaederform or cubic shape. The colour varies, usually green, violet, yellow and blue, but pure calcium fluoride is colourless. X-rays can alter the colour and today is a popular variant called Water melon. Fluoriten has a hardness of 4 on the Mohs hardness scale.

In the industry acid-grade fluorite is also used in aluminium smelting. Alumina is dissolved in a bath that consists primarily of molten Na3AlF6, AlF3, and fluorite to allow electrolytic recovery of aluminium. Fluoriten can be found in the mineralized veins, often together with other metallic minerals but usually with limestone. Significant deposits are in Wölsendorf in Germany, Austria, Italy, France, Norway, USA and Cumberland and Derbyshire in England where the only occurrence of the Blue John variant available. Fluorite gives you strength and health.

5


Fossils is organic material is converted into a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals. Petrified wood is a common result of this process, but all organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, can be petrified. Petrification takes place through a combination of two similar processes: permineralization and replacement. These processes create replicas of the original specimen that are similar down to the microscopic level, and require a minimum of about 10,000 years to take place. Not only are the fossils produced through the process of petrification used for paleontological study, but they have also been used as both decorative and jewellry pieces. Especially shell and coral fossils is used in jewellry.

Fossil stones remind us of our past and helps us to accept who we are. It also have a positive effect in business.

Nipomo is a census-designated place (CDP) in San Luis Obispo County, California, United States. The original settlers of Nipomo were the Chumash Indians, who have lived in the area for over 9,000 years. Rancho Nipomo (the Indian word ne-po-mah meant "foot of the hill") was one of the first and largest of the Mexican land grants in San Luis Obispo County.

 


Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. All species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, but differ in chemical composition. The different species are pyrope, almandine, spessartine, grossular (varieties of which are hessonite or cinnamon-stone and tsavorite), uvarovite and andradite; Grossular is yellow to red or brown, pyrope is dark red to almost black in a violet hue, almandin is dark reddish brown to violet, spessartin red or violet, and andradite can be yellow, green, brown reddish-brown or black. All forms have the same hardness - 7 on the Mohs scale. Finer garnets are used as gemstones. Grossular, almandin and andradite are present in Sweden, mostly Halsingland and Sodermanland. The largest deposits are, however, in Africa. Garnet is a common byproduct of the iron ore industry.

The Garnet stands for happiness, money, love and health.

5


Golden Sandstone, Goldstone or Sun Sitara, is often mistaken for a gemstone but it’s actually a form of glittering glass manufactured in a low-oxygen atmosphere. It tolerates a smooth polish and can be used for carved beads and figurines, that reflectes in the pricing. The original production process was invented in the 1700s Venice by the family Miotti, a process that was granted an exclusive license from the Doge. Persistent rumors claimes that gold stone was the result of an accident when the family tested combinations for the manufacture of glass, and sometimes that it was first made by monks. The most common colour is reddish brown but also blue, green or black are present, with small crystals of copper that gives the stone its shimmer.

Nevertheless, it is considered to be a 'Master Healer' that stabilize emotions and help you to remain calm. It is used as an energy source, reflects unwanted energies and reminds us to set high goals and achieving them. It is also considered to increase blood flow.

5


Heliotrope, also called bloodstone, is a form of chalcedony (a crypto-crystalline mixture of silica polymorph and morganite). The classic blood stone is green chalcedony interspersed with fields of iron oxide and / or red jasper. Sometimes the inclusions can be yellow and the stone is named Plasma. The red inclusions symbolize blood, there of the name bloodstone. The name Heliotrope, from the Greek helios, sun, and trepein/ tropos, turning/turn, refers to the various emotions the stones ability to reflect light faced historically. These have been described by, among others Pliny the Elder in Naturalis Historia.

Heliotrope is worn to give you courage and remove fear and anger. It gives success with money and business - put it in your wallet and / or the cash register. It is used to keep blood healthy and to bring down fever. Bloodstone is the traditional birthstone for March.

 

Note. In Sweden sometimes hematite is also called bloodstone. It can cause cofusion when dealing with jewelers outside Sweden.

5


Hematite is a mineral, coloured black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite), iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite is harder than pure iron, but much more brittle.is a reddish iron oxide. It is common in tropical soils and often cause such soils more or less red colour. Hematite is also common in iron ore and commonly found in the ore fields in the Bergslagen. It is also found on Mars.

Hematite stands for love, protection and health.

5


Hemimorphites is a sorosilicate mineral which has been historically mined from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. It was assumed to be the same mineral, both classed under the name calamine. In the second half of the 18th century it was discovered that there were two different minerals - a zinc carbonate and a zinc silicate, which often closely resembled each other. The silicate was the more rare of the two, and was named hemimorphite because of the hemimorph development of its crystals. This unusual form, which is typical of only a few minerals, means that the crystals are terminated by dissimilar faces. Hemimorphite most commonly forms crystalline crusts and layers, also massive, granular, rounded and reniform aggregates, concentrically striated, or finely needle-shaped, fibrous or stalactitic, and rarely fan-shaped clusters of crystals. Some specimens show strong green fluorescence in shortwave ultraviolet light and weak light pink fluorescence in longwave UV. The regions on the Belgian-German border are well known for their deposits of hemimorphite, especially Vieille Montagne in Belgium and Aachen in Germany. Other deposits are Poland, Phoenixville, Pennsylvania,  Montana, Colorado and New Mexico in the United States, and North Africa. Further  occurrences are Thailand, Sardinia, Siberia, Italy, Austria and England.

5


Hessonite, Cinnamon Stone, is a more common variety of Grossular. The name comes from the Greek hēssōn, meaning inferior; an allusion to its lower hardness and lower density than most other garnet species varieties. It has a characteristic red color, inclining to orange or yellow, much like that of zircon. It have shown that many gemstones thought to be Zircons, especially engraved, were actually Hessonite. The difference is readily detected by the specific gravity, that of hessonite being 3.64 to 3.69, while that of zircon is about 4.6. Hessonite has a hardness of 7 on the mohs scale), while tmost garnet species are nearer 7.5. Hessonite comes chiefly from Sri Lanka and India where it is found generally in placer deposits, though its occurrence in its native matrix is not unknown. It is also found in Brazil and California.
Hessonite helps you to 

Hessonit helps you to process the feelings of inferiority. It also gives you a greater ability to overlook others' weaknesses.

5


Howlite is a borate mineral that was discovered near Windsor, Nova Scotia in 1868 by Henry How, a Canadian chemist, geologist and mineralogist. It was brought to his attention by miners at a limestone quarry, who mosty thought it was a nuisance. He called the new mineral silico-boro-calcite, but shortly afterwards it was called howlite.

The most common form of Howlite similar irregular cauliflower. Crystals of Howlite are rare but have been found in a few places worldwide.

Howlite has a hardness of 3.5 on the Mohs scale and, because of its porous structure, it is easily coloured to imitate other minerals, in particular turquoise because of the superficial graining similarity.

Howlite stimulates the imagination and encourages reasoning. It helps you overcome critical or selfish behavior and are believed to bring good luck. It calms and soothes, helps you with sleep, relieves anger, stress, pain, and is considered to strengthen bones and teeth.

5


Iolite (mineralogical Cordierite) is a magnesium-iron-aluminum cyclosilicate. It usually occurs in the metamorphosis of argillaceous rocks and is particularly common in the metamorphosis of peliticstenar. Iolite also occurs in certain granites, pegmatite and norites, eg in Geevor Tin Mine in Cornwall. As the transparent variety iolite, it is often used as a gemstone. The name "iolite" comes from the Greek word for violet. Another old name is dichroite, a Greek word that means "two-coloured stone," a reference to its strong pleochroism. It has also been called "water sapphire" and "Viking compass" because of its usefulness to determine the direction of the sun on cloudy days that made the Vikings used it for navigation. Another name for the blue iolite is Steinheilite, after the Russian military governor in Finland, Fabian Steinheil, who observed that it was not a quarter.

Iolitens colour varies from sapphire blue and blue-violet to yellowish gray to light blue depending on the lighting angle. Sometimes Iolite is used as a cheaper substitute for sapphire, but it is much softer than sapphires. Iolite occurs mainly in India, Sri Lanka, Mozambique and Brazil, but deposits are also found in Australia, Burma, Canada, Madagascar, Namibia, Tanzania and the United States.

Iolite is a spiritual rock that gives insight, confidence and awareness of what's under the surface. It helps you to get in touch with your inner self when you want to progress. Good against headaches, temples pain and neck problems. It cures sore throat, varicose veins and various skin rashes and blisters.

5


Jade is mineralogically an incomplete term that covers several types of hard stone, such as nephrite and jadeite found mainly in China and Central America. The coloud varies from dark green to white. The English word jade is derived (via French L'ejade and Latin Ilia) from the Spanish term piedra de ijada or "loin stone", from its reputed efficacy in curing ailments of the loins and kidneys. Nephrite comes from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada. In some countries, jade is known as "green stone". Among the earliest known artifacts unearthed is simple jewelry with beads, buttons, and tubular shapes. In addition, jade to yxhuvuden, knives and other weapons. During the Neolithic period were the key known sources of nephrite jade Ningshaoområdet in the Yangtze Delta (Liangzhu 3400-2250 BC) and Liaoning Province and Inner Mongolia (Hongshan 4700-2200 BC), China. Jade was used to create many ceremonial objects, and was considered the "imperial gem".

In New Zealand nephrite jade known as Pounamu Maori (often called the "green stone") and plays an important role in Maorikulturen. It is considered a Taonga or tax, and is therefore protected under the Treaty of Waitangi, and the use of it is limited and closely monitored. It is only on the southern island of New Zealand, called Te Wai Pounamu Maori - "[The] Greenstone Water ', or Te Wahi Pounamu -' Place of Greenstone".

Jade stands for love, protection, health and money.

5


Jasper is an aggregate of microquartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases, is an opaque, impure variety of silica, which along with other minerals gives the colourful bands and patterns. Jasper was a favorite stone in antiquity, and its name, which means "speckled stone", can be traced back in Hebrew, Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Latin. Jasper occurs all over the globe and draw their colour and pattern from the local was formed. It is named also often based on this pattern, such Picture jasper which is reminiscent of a landscape view. Other names are Dalmatian jasper (spotted dog breed), Leaf jasper with a leaf pattern, Mahogony jasper with the colour of the tree, Moss jasper who looks to have included moss, etc.

Jasper gives you peace of mind and the ability to turn the pace down. It protects you from pointless energy.

5


Kambaba consists of microcrystalline quartz interlaced with Stromatolites, ancient united colonies created by cyanobacteria (blue green algae) and other microorganisms in antiquity. Stromatolites date back more than three billion years and is the oldest known fossils. Kambaba is a rare type of jasper from Madagascar and South Africa. One can literally discern the origins of life on our planet and the advanced creation of all living things in stone.

Kambaba jasper is a stone of peace and tranquility. Its dark mysterious circles and deep green eddies protect and soothe troubled minds and restore balance in body and soul. Kambaba increases your ability to focus and is an aid in meditation. It removes negative thoughts and emotions, especially those that plague the mind on a continuous basis. It also increases the ability to receive love.

5


Kunzite is the violet variety of spodumene and inamed after the gemologist George Frederik Kunz. It was first discovered in southern California 1902.

Kunzite is easy to split but hard and difficult to grind. It occurs in Southern California, San Diego and Riverside, as well as in Madagascar.

For moore information, go to spodumene

5


Kyanite, whose name derives from the Greek word kuanos sometimes referred to as "kyanos", meaning deep blue, is a typically blue silicate mineral, commonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock. Kyanite, also known as disthene, rhaeticite and cyanite, is a member of the aluminosilicate series, which also includes the polymorph andalusite and the polymorph sillimanite. Kyanite is strongly anisotropic, in that its hardness varies depending on its crystallographic direction.

Kyanite is used primarily in refractory and ceramic products, including porcelain plumbing fixtures and dishware. It is also used in electronics, electrical insulators and abrasives. Kyanite has been used as a semiprecious gemstone, which may display cat's eye chatoyancy, though this use is limited by its anisotropism and perfect cleavage. Colour varieties include recently discovered orange kyanite from Tanzania.

Kyanite stands for love, protection and health.

5


Labradorite  is a feldspar mineral, an intermediate to calcic member of the plagioclase series. As with all plagioclase members, the crystal system is triclinic, and three directions of cleavage are present, two of which form nearly right angle prisms. It occurs as clear, white to gray, blocky to lath shaped grains in common mafic igneous rocks such as basalt and gabbro, as well as in anorthosites.

The geological type area for labradorite is Paul's Island near the town of Nain in Labrador, Canada. It has also been reported in Norway (Larvikite) and various other locations worldwide (Spectrolite in Finland).

The colour spectrum of Labradorite resembles the rainbow and Greek Iris, goddess of the rainbow. Norse mythology links it to Bifrost, the rainbow bridge that connects Asgard, where the gods live, with Middle-earth, where people live.

Labradorite gives you strength.

5


Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense colour. The most important mineral component in Lapis lazuli is lazurite. Lapis takes an excellent polish and can be made into jewelry, carvings, boxes, mosaics, ornaments, and vases. It was also ground and processed to make the pigment ultramarine, widely used during the Renaissance in frescoes and oil painting. Its usage as a pigment in oil paint largely ended in the early 19th century when a chemically identical synthetic variety became available. Lapis lazuli also made its way to ancient Egypt, where it was a favorite stone for amulets and ornaments such as scarabs. It has been found at excavations of the Predynastic Egyptian site and at Karnak. Powdered lapis was used as eyeshadow by Cleopatra.

In late classical times, lapis lazuli was often called sapphire though it had little to do with the stone today known as the blue corundum variety sapphire. Lapis lazuli was being mined in the Badakhshan province in northeast Afghanistan as early as the 7th millennium BC but is found to the west of Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia. It is mined in smaller amounts in Angola; Argentina; Burma; Pakistan; Canada; Italy, India; and in the USA in California and Colorado.

Lapis Lazuli stands for love, protection, health and strength.

5


Larimar, also called "Stefilia's Stone", is a rare blue variety of pectolite found only in the Dominican Republic, in the Caribbean. Its colouration varies from white, light-blue, green-blue to deep blue. The colour is sensitive and fade over time if the stone is exposed to too much light and heat.

In 1916, the Dominican Republic's Ministry of Mining denied Father Miguel Domingo Fuertes Loren of the Barahona Parish request to explore and exploit the mine of a certain blue rock he had discovered. In 1974, at the foot of the Bahoruco Range, the coastal province of Barahona, Miguel Méndez and Peace Corps volunteer Norman Rilling rediscovered Larimar on a beach. Natives, who believed the stone came from the sea, called the gem Blue Stone. Miguel took his young daughter's name Larissa and the Spanish word for sea (mar) and formed Larimar, by the colours of the water of the Caribbean Sea, where it was found. The few stones they found were alluvial sediment, washed into the sea by the Bahoruco River, but an upstream search revealed the in situ outcrops in the range and soon the Los Chupaderos mine was formed.

Larimar is a type of pectolite, or a rock composed largely of pectolite, an acid silicate hydrate of calcium and sodium. Although pectolite is found in many locations, none have the unique volcanic blue colouration of larimar. This blue colour, distinct from that of other pectolites, is the result of cobalt substitution for calcium. Larimar gives constructive thoughts, clarity and purity. It opens new dimensions and stimulate development, cures extreme emotional outburts and heals trauma.

5


Larvikite is a variety of monzonite***, notable for the presence of handsome, thumbnail-sized crystals of feldspar. These feldspars are known as ternary because they contain significant components of all three end-member feldspars. The feldspar has partly unmixed on the micro-scale to form a perthite, and the presence of the alternating alkali feldspar and plagioclase layers give its characteristic silver blue sheen (Schiller effect, labradorescence) on polished surfaces. Olivine can be present along with apatite, and locally quartz. Larvikite is usually rich on titanium, with titanaugite and/or titanomagnetite present. The name originates from the town of Larvik in Norway, where this type of igneous rock is found. Many quarries exploit larvikite in the vicinity of Larvik. Sometimes Larvikite is referred to as black Labradorite.

 

*** Monzonite is an igneous intrusive rock. It is composed of approximately equal amounts of plagioclase and alkali feldspar, with less than 5% quartz by weight.[1] It may contain minor amounts of hornblende, biotite and other minerals. If quartz constitutes greater than 5%, the rock is termed a quartz monzonite.

5


Lepidolit är en lila-grå eller rosafärgad fyllosilikatmineral, som är en sekundär källa till lithium. Den tillhör samma grupp som andra litiummineral – som spodumen pegmatit, en av de viktigaste källorna till den sällsynta alkalimetallen rubidium och cesium. 1861 extraherade Robert Bunsen och Gustav Kirchhoff 150 kg Lepidolit och lämnade några gram av rubidiumsalter för analys varpå det nya elementet rubidium upptäcktes.

Lepidolit förekommer i granit och gneis. Associerade mineraler är kvarts, fältspat, spodumen, amblygonite, turmalin, columbite, kassiterit, topas och beryll. De viktigaste fyndigheterna finns i Brasilien, Uralbergen, Ryssland, Californien i USA, Tanco-gruvan, Bernic Lake, Manitoba i Kanada och Madagaskar.

5


Llanite is a hypabyssally intruded rhyolite with phenocrysts of microcline and euhedral quartz. It is a rock formed by the solidification of lava at or near the Earth's surface through the deposition of and petrification of volcanic ash. Characteristic is the fine or dense because the mass of scattered crystals of quartz, as opposed to the mineral crystallized far below the Earth's surface and therefore has become much larger than the particles of the hurriedly solidified lava or ash, as they become embedded. Llanite contains crystals of feldspar and quartz as blue is encased in microkristallin of smaller fluorite, magnetite, apatite and zircon. It is named after Llano County, Texas, the only place where it is found (according to locals; however, geologists have identified other locations).Llanite is very strong with a high crushing strength, 26.577.180 kg/m.

Llanite is a wonderful companion for those who often find themselves discussions and unpleasant situations. Llanite promote cooperation that leads to rapid solutions, helps to focus on diplomacy and tact, as well as helping to maintain balance in a relationship. It will also help to see the big picture before important decisions.
 

Note. Llanite have no name in Sweden, most similar rock is ‘Porfyr’.

5


Lodolite is a type of quartz with unique inclusions of chlorites in many colors and patterns; no stone lookes alike. The inclusions often looks like a garden, a landscape or an underwater scene caught in a magnifying glass. The colours of the inclusions within the stone can vary from green, pink, yellow, Brown, white, red more multiple. The name comes from Spanish iodine = mud, sludge and means in large "clay stone" but if it refers to the local or to the appearance is uncertain.

Lodolite is said to offer a glimpse into another, cosmic world. Staring into the stone is said to bring about a shift of consciousness. Lodoliten harmonizes the higher vibrational energies of the aura and subtle body. It is a very powerful journeying stone at all levels-cosmic, spiritual and personal.

5


Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. This opaque, green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, and most often forms botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fractures and spaces, deep underground, where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicular prisms. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also occur.

Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800, when it was replaced by its synthetic form, verditer, among other synthetic greens. It is also used for decorative purposes.

Malachite helps the soul to flourish, both in width and karma. It awakens the hidden and unconscious, and will help you overcome your deepest fears. It also helps the organic process by retrieve what is put aside. Malachite stand for love, money and protection.

5


Mookaite is the common, or popular, name for the rock with the geological name Windalia Radiolarite, being a fine grained, silicified and multi-coloured, radiolarian siltstone, found in outcrops, principally on Mooka Station, a sheep farm in Western Australia. It is found only in Australia and is actually a fossiliferous sedimentary rock; Microscopic examination shows this rock consists of the remains of tiny organisms known as radiolaria that have an unusual skeletal structure of opaline silica. Billions of these little critters were deposited as sediment in the shallow areas of ancient sea beds. When the seas retreated, these sediments were cemented into solid rock by silica carried in groundwater.

Mookaite Jasper encourages versatility and helps you to accept change. It helps you to discover all possibilities in and to choose the right one. Mookaite also grounds and stabilizes the whole body and provides a protective energy that  helps to block unwanted outside influences.

5


Moonstone  is a sodium potassium aluminium silicate. The most common moonstone is of the mineral adularia, named for an early mining site near Mt. Adular in Switzerland, now the town of St. Gotthard. The plagioclase feldspar oligoclase also produces moonstone specimens. Moonstone is feldspar with a pearly and opalescent schiller. An alternative name is hecatolite. Its name is derived from a visual effect, or sheen, caused by light diffraction within a microstructure consisting of a regular succession of two feldspar layers, orthoclase and albite (adularescence). The colour ranges from blue, gray, white, pink, green to brown. Moonstone has been used and that jewelry for centuries, even in ancient civilizations. The Romans admired it, as they thought that it was born from solidified rays of the moon. With booth the Romans and the Greeks, the moonstone belonged to its gods and goddesses of the moon (luna, lunar).

Deposits of moonstone occur in Armenia, Australia, the Austrian Alps, Mexico, Madagascar, Myanmar, Norway, Poland, India, Sri Lanka and the United States.

Although the Moonstone does not occur naturally in Florida, it is currently the state gem for Florida (to commemorate the Moon landings).

The Moonstone stands for love, strenght, hapiness and health.

 

Note. Also compare with Rainbow Moonstone

5


Morganite, also known as pink beryl, pink emerald, and cesian/caesian beryl, is a rare light pink to rose-coloured gem-quality variety of beryl. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found, and colour banding is common. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its colour.

Pink beryl of fine colour and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in 1910. It was also known, with other gemstone minerals, such as tourmaline and kunzite, at Pala, California. In December 1910, the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl "morganite" after financier J. P. Morgan. The largest Morganite rock ever found was discovered in Maine in 1989. It weighed 50 kilos and was eventually called “The Rose of Maine”.

Morganite gives us patience, respect and love for life itself. It gives us strenght towards authoryties, symbolizes the love of our lifes and helps us grow.

5


Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian is hard and brittle and fractures with very sharp edges. It was valued in Stone Age cultures because, like flint, it could be fractured to produce sharp blades or arrowheads. Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance, though the colour varies depending on the presence of impurities. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black colour. Very few samples are nearly colourless. In some stones, the inclusion of small, white, radially clustered crystals of cristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian).

Obsidian can be found in Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Australia, Canada, Chile, Georgia, Greece, El Salvador, Guatemala, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Scotland, Turkey and the United States.

Snowflake Obsidian is a rock of purity. It balaces mind, body and soul, and stands for protection and health.

5


Oligoclase is a rock-forming mineral belonging to the plagioclase feldspars. Oligoclase is a high sodium feldspar crystallizing in the triclinic system with a Mohs hardness is 6 to 6.5. The colour is usually white, with shades of grey, green, or red. The name oligoclase was given by August Breithaupt in 1826 from the Greek oligos, little, and clasein, to break, because the mineral was thought to have a less perfect cleavage than albite.

Perfectly colorless and transparent glassy material found at Bakersville, North Carolina has occasionally been faceted as a gemstone. Another variety more frequently used as a gemstone is the aventurine-feldspar or sun-stone found as reddish cleavage masses in gneiss at Tvedestrand in southern Norway; this presents a brilliant red to golden metallic glitter, due to the presence of numerous small scales of hematite oriented within the feldspar structure.
Oligoclase occurs, often accompanying orthoclase, as a constituent of plutonic igneous rocks such as granite, syenite, and diorite. It occurs in porphyry and diabase dikes and sills as well as in the volcanic rocks andesite and trachyte. It also occurs in gneiss.
 

5


Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony and formed in the vesicles of lava. The bands are made of cryptocrystalline, consisting of fine intergrowths of the silica minerals quartz and moganite. In Onyx, the bands are parallel to one another, as opposed to the more chaotic banding that often occurs in agates. The colours of its bands range from white to almost every colour (save some shades, such as purple or blue). Commonly, specimens of onyx contain bands of black and/or white. It has a long history of use for hardstone carving and jewellery, where it is usually cut as a cabochon or into beads. It has also been used for intaglio and hardstone cameo engraved gems, where the bands make the image contrast with the ground. Some onyx is natural but much of the material in commerce is produced by the staining of agate. Onyx is a gemstone found in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Madagascar, the UK, and various states in the US.

Onyx stands for protection and health.

5


Opal is an amorphous form of silica related to quartz, a mineraloid form, not a mineral. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water, but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, which produces 97% of the world's supply. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light; depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colours. It ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, pink, magenta, rose, slate, olive, brown, and black. Peruvian opal is a semi-opaque to opaque, mostly blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. It does not display pleochroism.

Opals are also found in the United States, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Turkey, Indonesia, Brazil, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Ethiopia.

The Opal helps you find the right path in life och gives you power to innovate. It stands for love, happiness, health and money.

5


Opalite, (a.k.a Tiffany Stone, opal glass, opalized fluorite) is the commonly used name of impure varieties of opal in varying colours. A purple, lavender or white stone, sometimes with spots of purple, yellow-brown and black that makes a sensational light output at the faceting. Found in Bertrandite mined mainly in Utah, USA. It consists mainly of dolomite, opalized fluorite but often with minerals such as quartz and chalcedony. The name Tiffany Stone probably direves from the venerable jeweler with the same name, who used it in some of their designs.

It is also used as a trade name for synthetic opalised glass and various opal simulants.

5


Orthoclase is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. It is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. Typically, the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite, of plagioclase. While slowly cooling within the earth, sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution, enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite.Together with the other potassium feldspars, orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses and some ceramics such as porcelain, and as a constituent of scouring powder.

Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. Most moonstones are translucent and white, although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. In gemology, their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. It is the state gem of Florida. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness.

NASA's Curiosity Rover discovery of high levels of orthoclase in Martian sandstones suggested that some Martian rocks may have experienced complex geological processing, such as repeated melting.

 

5


Pearls is a hard object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk. Just like the shell of a clam, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes (baroque pearls) occur. The finest quality natural pearls have been highly valued as gemstones and objects of beauty for many centuries. Because of this, pearl has become a metaphor for something rare, fine, admirable and valuable. The most valuable pearls occur spontaneously in the wild, but are extremely rare. These wild pearls are referred to as natural pearls. Cultured or farmed pearls from pearl oysters and freshwater mussels make up the majority of those currently sold. Imitation pearls are also widely sold in inexpensive jewelry, but the quality of their iridescence is usually very poor and is easily distinguished from that of genuine pearls. Pearls have been harvested and cultivated primarily for use in jewelry, but in the past were also used to adorn clothing. They have also been crushed and used in cosmetics, medicines and paint formulations.

Cultured pearls are the response of the shell to a tissue implant. A tiny piece of mantle tissue (called a graft) from a donor shell is transplanted into a recipient shell, causing a pearl sac to form into which the tissue precipitates calcium carbonate.

Freshwater pearls form in various species of freshwater mussels, family Unionidae, which live in lakes, rivers, ponds and other bodies of fresh water. These freshwater pearl mussels occur not only in hotter climates, but also in colder more temperate areas such as Scotland (where they are protected under law). Most freshwater cultured pearls sold today come from China.

Saltwater pearls grow within pearl oysters, family Pteriidae, which live in oceans. Saltwater pearl oysters are usually cultivated in protected lagoons or volcanic atolls, mainly in Japan or China (in 2010, cultivation of Akoya pearls moved to China). Previously, natural pearls were found in many parts of the world but today, natural pearling is confined mostly to seas off Bahrain. Australia also has one of the world's last remaining fleets of pearl diving ships who harvest south sea pearl oysters to be used in the cultured pearl industry.

Whether wild or cultured, gem-quality pearls are almost always nacreous and iridescent, like the interior of the shell that produces them. Cultured pearls can be distinguished from natural pearls by X-ray examination. A beaded cultured pearl shows a solid center with no concentric growth rings, whereas a natural pearl shows a series of concentric growth rings.

Tradenames of cultured pearls are Akoya, white or golden South sea, and black Tahitian.

The finest natural pearls are highly valued and because of this, the word pearl has become a metaphor for something very rare, precious, admirable and valuable.

The English word pearl comes from the French perle, originally from the Latin perna meaning leg, after the ham- or mutton leg-shaped bivalve.

5


Peridot is gem-quality olivine. The origin of the name peridot is uncertain. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests an alteration of Anglo–Norman pedoretés (classical Latin pæderot-), a kind of opal, rather than the Arabic word faridat, meaning "gem". Peridot is one of the few gemstones that occur in only one colour, an olive green. The intensity and tint of the green, however, depends on how much iron is contained in the crystal structure, so the colour of individual peridot gems can vary from yellow—to olive—to brownish-green. The most valued colour is a dark olive-green. Peridot is sometimes mistaken for emeralds and other green gems. In fact, notable gemologist George Frederick Kunz discussed the confusion between emeralds and peridots in many church treasures, notably the "Three Magi" treasure in the Dom of Cologne, Germany. Olivine, of which peridot is a type, is a common mineral in mafic and ultramafic rocks, and it is often found in lavas and in peridotite xenoliths of the mantle, which lavas carry to the surface. Peridot can be also found in meteorites.

Peridot is mined in Arkansas, Arizona, Hawaii, Nevada, and New Mexico in the US; and in Australia, Brazil, China, Egypt, Kenya, Mexico, Myanmar, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. Its possible that Peridot have originated in very antique jewelry from Egypt, where the reuse of stones from ancient objects was common during the 17- and 1800 century. Peridot crystals have been collected from some Pallasite meteorites. A famous Pallasite was offered for auction in April 2008 with a requested price of close to $3 million at Bonhams, but remained unsold. The largest cut peridot olivine is a 310 carat (62 g) specimen in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C.

Peridot is the birthstone for the month of August.

5


Phosphorite (phosphate rock or rock phosphate) is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate bearing minerals. The phosphate content of phosphorite is at least 15 to 20 which is a considerable enrichment over the typical sedimentary rock content of less than 0.2%. The phosphate is often dissolved from vertebrate bones and teeth and hydrothermal veins. Other sources also include chemically dissolved phosphate minerals from igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Limestones and mudstones are common phosphate bearing rocks. Phosphate rich sedimentary is commonly accompanied by or interbedded with shales, cherts, limestone, dolomites and sometimes sandstone.These layers contain the same textures and structures as fine grained limestones and may represent diagenetic replacements of carbonate minerals by phosphates. They also can be composed of peloids, ooids, fossils, and clasts that are made up of apatite. There are some phosphorites that are very small and have no distinctive granular textures. This means that their textures are similar to that of collophane, or fine micrite-like texture. Peloidal or pelletal phosphorites occur normally; whereas oolitic phosphorites are not common.

Phosphorites are known from Proterozoic banded iron formations in Australia, but are more common from Paleozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The Permian Phosphoria Formation of the western US represents some 15 million years of sedimentation. It reaches a thickness of 420 metres and covers an area of 350,000 km2. Commercially mined phosphorites occur in France, Belgium, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria. In the US phosphorites have been mined in Florida, Tennessee, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho and Kansas.

The pale purple/lilac colour of Phosphorite is healing for the soul and heart. It supports a love experience filled with soul, and bindes the heart with the third eye and the crown chackra.

5


Pietersite was discovered by Sid Pieters in 1962 while he was prospecting some farmland in Namibia, Africa. Currently there are only two known sources of pietersite; China and Africa. These two forms of pietersite are similar but still somewhat different from each other. The Chinese pietersite's fibrous mineral is a magnesium-rich alkalic amphibole. The African (Namibian) variety is mainly crocidolite.

The China form of pietersite is said to have been discovered in 1993, but did not come to market until 1997. This China pietersite exhibits slightly different colour variations from Mr. Pieter's original mineral, but both are beautiful and are now universally recognized as pietersite.

Regardless of the source, pietersite will always have brecciated, fibrous bands. The fibrous structure has been folded, stressed, even fractured and/or broken apart via the Earth's geologic processes. The fibrous materials have then been reformed and naturally recemented together by quartz. Stones and crystals that go through this process are referred to as brecciated, creating a finished product with multiple colours, hues and superb chatoyancy. Thus the structure of the fibrous streaks in pietersite may appear rather chaotic, and can flow or exist in many directions side-by-side like bold paint strokes.

Colours include various blues, golds and reds, that may appear together or alone. Blue is the rarest colour, followed by red. The blues range from a baby blue to dark midnight hue. Golds can be light to very deep and rich, sometimes having a reddish hue. All fibrous colour variations will have a superb and striking chatoyancy, the bright and subtly changing shimmer of colour that moves along the surface of a gemstone as it is viewed from varying angles. 

Pietersite stands for power and health.

5


Prasiolit (praziolite, green-quartz or vermarine), is a green form of quartz, a silicate mineral chemically silicon dioxide. Prasiolite is one of several quartz varieties. Since 1950, almost all natural prasiolite has come from a small Brazilian mine, but it is also seen in Lower Silesia in Poland and is also found in the Thunder Bay area of Canada. Prasiolite can be confused with the similarly colored praseolite which results from the heat treatment of iolite, a variety of cordierite.
Prasiolite is heat treated amethyst. While most amethyst will turn yellow or orange when heated producing citrine, some will turn green when treated. Green quartz is sometimes incorrectly called green amethyst, which is an actual misnomer and not an acceptable name for the material, the proper terminology being Prasiolite. It is actually against Federal Trade Commission Guidelines to call prasiolite "green amethyst." The name is derived from Greek πράσον prason meaning "leek" and λίθος lithos meaning "stone." This means that "prasiolite" literally means "scallion green-colored stone." The mineral was given its name due to its green-colored appearance.
Prasiolit enhances energies and help you express your feelings. It helps you to deal with things.

5


Prehnite is a inosilicate of calcium and aluminium in the structure. Its colour varies from light green to yellow, but also colourless, blue or white. It is mostly translucent, and rarely transparent. Prehnite crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system with a hardness of 6-6.5. Very rarely will it form distinct, well individualized crystals showing a square-like cross-section, like those found at the Jeffrey Mine in Asbestos, Quebec, Canada. It is brittle with an uneven fracture and a vitreous to pearly lustre. In April 2000, a rare orange Prehnite was discovered at the famous Kalahari Manganese Fields in South Africa. The first finds was made in the Kalahari Fields but its more commen in the Wave Hill Station area in Australia. Prehnite got its name from the Dutch commander Hendrik von Prehn,who made the first descoveries in the Cape provins in the 18th century.

Prehnite is thought to strenghten to personel protection field, dreams and memory. Prehnite is the rock of unconditional love. It stands for strenght and love.

5


Pyrite, or iron pyrite, (a.k.a fool's gold), is an iron. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold, hence the well-known nickname. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. The name is derived from the Greek πυρίτης (pyritēs), "of fire" or "in fire", in turn from πύρ (pyr), "fire". Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock, as well as in coal beds and as a replacement mineral in fossils. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold, pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. In the Carlin–type gold deposits, arsenian pyrite contains up to 0.37 wt% gold.

Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms, most notably the wheellock, where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. During the early years of the 20th century, pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers, and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. A newer commercial use for pyrite is as the cathode material in Energizer brand non-rechargeable lithium batteries.

Pyrite brings confidence and the persistence to carry things through to completion.

5


Pyroxene are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. They share a common structure consisting of single chains of silica tetrahedra and they crystallize in the monoclinic and orthorhombic systems. The chain silicate structure of the pyroxenes offers much flexibility in the incorporation of various cations and the names of the pyroxene minerals are primarily defined by their chemical composition. Pyroxene minerals are named according to the chemical species occupying the X (or M2) site, the Y (or M1) site, and the tetrahedral T site. Cations in Y (M1) site are closely bound to 6 oxygens in octahedral coordination. Cations in the X (M2) site can be coordinated with 6 to 8 oxygen atoms, depending on the cation size.

The name pyroxene comes from the Greek words for fire (πυρ) and stranger (ξένος), because of their presence in volcanic lavas, where they are sometimes seen as embedded crystals.

Pyroxene is found in Arizona, USA, as well as in other locations worldwide.

5


Quarts is second to Feldspar the most common mineral in the Earth's continental crust. It occurs all over the globe but it is above all in Europe and the Middle East as quartz has been used in the manufacture of jewelry. There are many varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. The most common and best known is probably the amethyst result of smoky quartz. Pure quartz, traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz), is colourless and transparent (clear) or partially transparent. Phantom quartz is almost completely transparent, but the stone is reddish grains encapsulated when the quartz was formed. The word quartz comes from German quartz movement.

White Quartz gives you the ability to observation and calm. It heals wounds and combat prejudice.

 

Note. Look for further information on the respective names

5


Rainbow Calsilica is a popular material among jewelry designers all over the world. But it is also controversial, and the opionions are diveded; One side claims to have ensured that it is a genuine stone, a mineral and not artificial. Although, scientists have demonstrated the veils of colour are similar to various commercial pigments. The theory holds that Calsilica was formed on its own without the imposition of hands, when by-products from the tile manufacturing leaked out in to the ground and formed deposits in underground cavities. These deposits have since been discovered by chance and misinterpreted as a work of nature; The other side that argues that Calsilica is a genuine mineral and can prove it with mines in Mexico, where the mineral it is found. Regardless of these two teories, it is a wonderful and beautiful material with great rock feel which suits most designs. Sellers of precious and semi-precious stone have lately (2015) begun to mark Calsilican as man-made. Nevertheless, we can enjoy the beauty and colours.  

5


Rainbow moonstone is a colourless form of labradorite, a plagioclase with a multi colour adularescence on a white base. It is a member of the feldspar family which constitutes about 60% of the crust. The reason that the Rainbow moonstone still is called ‘moonstone’ is due to its adularescence which also to some makes it preferable to “true” moonstone.

The ancient Romans belived that the Rainbow moonstone consisted of lunar rays, and it was also adimered by the Greeks. It has been used in jewelry for centuries, first in ancient times, then in Art Nouveau jewelry and later by the hippie movement in the 60s where it became popular in modern New Age. It can be distinguished from "true" moonstone, that is a orthoclase, by its greater transparency and play of colour, although their value and durability do not greatly differ. The hardness in Mohs scale is the same, 6 to 6.5. Rainbow moonstone occurs in Australia, Canada, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar (Burma), Russia, Sri Lanka and the United States.

The Rainbow moonstone is believed to be a magical stone that possesses potent protective properties and helps its wearer to find his true path in life. It is meant to "bring light" to the otherwise unknown, thereby giving its wearer insight. It is also said to have the ability to bring out the positive in people and calm overactive minds, and give its carrier peace.

5


Red coral (Precious coral) is the common name given to Corallium rubrum and several related species of marine coral. The distinguishing characteristic of precious corals is their durable and intensely coloured red or pink skeleton, which is used for making jewelry.

Other corals is often porous and crumbling which does not make it suitable for jewelry.

Coral stands for health and strength

5


Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red colour (the name comes from the Greek rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rare polymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra.

Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey.

Rhodonite is said to suppress feelings like anger and disgust. It helps you eliminate negative feelings like jealousy, frustration, greed and intolerance. It suppresses anxiety attacks, gives you self esteem and confidence to tackle difficult projects. Rhodonite stimulates creativity and encourages family and partner relationships. It is ideal for the treatment of emotions such as anger and disgust and eliminates negative emotions. Rhodonit strengthens self-confidence and stimulates creativity and stands for love, health and strength.

5


Rodocrosit is a manganese carbonate mineral. In its (rare) pure form, it is typically a rose-red colour, but impure specimens can be shades of pink to pale brown. The name is derived from the Greek word οδόχρως meaning rose-coloured. It streaks white, and its Mohs hardness varies between 3.5 and 4. It crystallizes in the trigonal system, and cleaves with rhombohedral carbonate cleavage in three directions. Crystal twinning often is present. It is transparent to translucent. Rhodochrosite forms a complete solid solution series with iron carbonate (siderite). Calcium, (as well as magnesium and zinc, to a limited extent) frequently substitutes for manganese in the structure, leading to lighter shades of red and pink, depending on the degree of substitution. It is for this reason that the most common colour encountered is pink.

Rhodochrosite occurs as a hydrothermal vein mineral along with other manganese minerals in low temperature ore deposits as in the silver mines, and was first described in 1813 in reference to a sample from Cavnic, Maramureş, present-day Romania. Banded rhodochrosite is mined in Capillitas, Argentina. Quality banded specimens are often used for decorative stones and jewelry. Due to its being relatively soft, and having perfect cleaveage, it is very difficult to cut, and therefore rarely found faceted in jewelry.

Rhodochrosite is Argentina's "national gemstone", and in 2002 the state of Colorado, USA, officially named it its state mineral. Large specimens have been found in the Sweet Home Mine near Alma, Colorado.

The Incas thought it to be the blood of their dead rulers.It is sometimes called "Rosa del Inca", "Inca Rose" or Rosinca.

Rhodocrosite stands for love, health and strenght.

5


Rose quartz exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. The colour is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium, iron, or manganese, in the massive material. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the colour is due to thin microscopic fibers of possibly dumortierite within the massive quartz. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford, Maine, USA, but most crystals on the market come from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral.

Rose quartz stimulates love and promotes health. It also stands for love and health.

5


Ruby is a pink to blood-red coloured gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The red colour is caused mainly by the presence of the element chromium. Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. The ruby is considered one of the four precious stones, together with the sapphire, the emerald, and the diamond.

Prices of rubies are primarily determined by colour. The brightest and most valuable "red" called pigeon blood-red, commands a huge premium over other rubies of similar quality. After colour follows clarity: similar to diamonds, a clear stone will command a premium, but a ruby without any needle-like rutile inclusions may indicate that the stone has been treated. Cut and carat (weight) also determine the price.

Rubies have a hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale. Among the natural gems only diamond are harder. All natural rubies have imperfections in them, including colour impurities and inclusions of rutile needles known as "silk". Gemologists use these needle inclusions found in natural rubies to distinguish them from synthetics, simulants, or substitutes. Some rubies show a 3-point or 6-point asterism or "star". These rubies are cut into cabochons to display the effect properly.

Historically, Rubies have been mined in Thailand, Cambodia, Afghanistan and in Pakistan but red rubies are rarely found in Sri Lanka, where pink sapphires are more common. After the Second World War ruby deposits were found in Tanzania, Madagascar, Vietnam, Nepal, Tajikistan, and Pakistan. A few rubies have been found in the U.S. states of Montana, North Carolina, and South Carolina. More recently, large ruby deposits have been found under the receding ice shelf of Greenland. In 2002 rubies were found in the Waseges River area of Kenya.

Together with Ruby Zoisite, the Ruby stands for protection, health and strenght.

5


Rutile quartz is a mineral in the quartz family. It has enclosed rutiles which approximately looks like blonde hairs. This has given that there are many stories of how some goddess hair has been captured in stone. Venus is an example of such a goddess, and because it is a love goddess hair encased, the story gives that the stone has the sensual qualities of the person wearing it.

Quartz is considered to bring the wearer strength and health.

5


Sapphire is one of the two or three gem-varieties of corundum. Although blue is their most well-known colour, sapphires comes in many colour of corundum except for red that are called rubies. Sapphires may also be colourless, in shades of gray and black. Pink-orange sapphires are also called padparadscha. Padparadscha sapphires are very rare and highly valued. The name derives from the Sinhalese word for lotus blossom. They often draw higher prices than many of even the finest blue sapphires. Padparadscha was originally being mined in Sri Lanka, but are also found in deposits in Vietnam and Africa. Blue sapphires are evaluated based upon the purity of their primary hue. Purple, violet, and green are the most common secondary hues found in blue sapphires.

Star sapphires contain intersecting needle-like inclusions (often the mineral rutile, a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide) that cause the appearance of a six-rayed "star"-shaped pattern when viewed with a single overhead light source. Sapphires are commonly worn as jewelry but because of the remarkable hardness they are used in some non-ornamental applications, including infrared optical components.Significant sapphire deposits are found in Eastern Australia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, East Africa, and in a few locations in North America. Sapphire and rubies are often found together in the same area.

The Black Star of Queensland is believed to be the largest star sapphire that has ever been mined, and it weighs 733 carats. The Star of India (563.4 carats) is thought to be the second largest star sapphire, and it is currently on display at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The 182-carat Star of Bombay, located in the National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, D.C., is an example of a blue star sapphire. The value of a star sapphire, however, depends not only on the weight of the stone but also the body colour, visibility and intensity of the asterism. Historically, the star Sapphire was used as protection against the evil eye and to reflect harmful or evil spells back to the sender. Magicians were known to use the gemstones to improve and control their magical powers. Among them, the sapphire was a gateway to the heavenly spheres.

The Sapphire can help you find your hidden potential, and to sharpen the vision of your life. It can help you achieve your material dreams and desires, as well as maintaining your wealth when it was acquired. It helps you to keep a balanced perspective, so you can organize your thought processes.

5


Selenit, satin spar, desert rose, and gypsum flower are four varieties of the mineral gypsum; all four varieties show obvious crystalline structure. The four "crystalline" varieties of gypsum are sometimes grouped together and called selenite. All varieties of gypsum, including selenite and alabaster, are composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (meaning has two molecules of water), with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. Selenite contains no significant selenium; the similarity of names comes from both substances being named from the Ancient Greek word for the Moon. Because of its optical properties,Selenite is sometimes called "nature's own fiber optics".

5


Septaria usually contain crystals precipitated from circulating solutions, usually of calcite. Siderite or pyrite coatings are also occasionally observed on the wall of the cavities present in the septaria, giving rise respectively to a panoply of bright reddish and golden colours. Some septaria may also contain small calcite stalagtites and well-shaped millimetric pyrite single crystals. The name comes from the Latin word septum; "partition", and refers to the cracks/separations in this kind of rock.There is an incorrect explanation that it comes from the Latin word for "seven", septem, referring to the number of cracks that commonly occur. Cracks are highly variable in shape and volume, as well as the degree of shrinkage they indicate. Although it has commonly been assumed that concretions grew incrementally from the inside outwards, the fact that radially oriented cracks taper towards the margins of septarian concretions is taken as evidence that in these cases the periphery was stiffer while the inside was softer, presumably due to a gradient in the amount of cement precipitated.

The process that created the septaria, which characterize septarian concretions, remains a mystery. Because of the variety of unusual shapes, sizes and compositions have concreteness are interpreted to be dinosaur eggs, animal and plant fossils (pseudofossils), extraterrestrial debris or human artifacts.

Septaria helps you protect your privacy and ward off unwanted interest from people who have an unhealthy interest for you. It is a strong rock who helps your spiritually and protects you mentally.

5


Seraphinite is a trade name for a particular form of clinochlore, a member of the chlorite group. It apparently acquired its name due to its resemblance to feathers due to its chatoyancy. Seraphinite is named after the biblical seraphs or seraphim angels.With some specimens the resemblance is quite strong, with shorter down-like feathery growths leading into longer "flight feathers"; the resemblance even spurs fanciful marketing phrases like "silver plume seraphinite." Seraphinite is generally dark green to gray in colour, has chatoyancy, and has hardness between 2 and 4 on the Mohs scale.

Seraphinite is mined in a limited area of eastern Siberia in Russia. Russian mineralogist Nikolay Koksharov (1818-1892 or 1893) is often credited with its discovery.

In Isaiah 6:2-6 the term Seraph is used to describe a type of celestial being or angel.

5


Serpentine is a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate minerals that may contain minor amounts of other elements including chromium, manganese, cobalt or nickel. In mineralogy and gemology, serpentine may refer to any of 20 varieties belonging to the serpentine group. There are three important mineral polymorphs of serpentine: antigorite, chrysotile and lizardite. Their olive green colour and smooth or scaly appearance is the basis of the name from the Latin serpentinus, meaning "serpent rock”.

Occurrence is worldwide; Antigorite is named after Valle di Antigorio, Italy. Bowenite is an especially hard serpentine (5.5),in a light to dark apple green colour, often with white spots and darker veining. It is the most common type used for jewelry. New Zealand Serpentine is called Tangiwai, as well as sserpentine from Rhode Island. William Site, found primarily in Maryland and Pennsylvania, United States, are oil green with black crystals. Gymnite's comes from findings in Bare Hills, Maryland, refering to the Greek word Gymnos -bare or naked.

5


Shivas eye/Shiva’s eye is a Operculum fossil. Operculum, meaning little lid, is a corneous or calcareous anatomical structure like a trapdoor which exists in many (but not all) groups of sea snails and freshwater snails, and also in a few groups of land snails.The operculum is attached to the upper surface of the foot and in its most complete state, it serves as a sort of "trapdoor" to close the aperture of the shell when the soft parts of the animal are retracted. The shape is often circular, or more or less oval in shape. Most familiar and often used in jewelry is the Ammonites, the fossil of an extinct squid with a spiral-shaped shell. While the Ammonites have a clear image, the Shivas Eye fossil is not that obvious; While the reverse shows a dark spiral towards a light,almost white background, the front shows a very decorative explosion of colours. Shivas eye is strongly represented in Hinduism. It is the third eye of the god Shiva and represents wisdom, and is said to see beyond the obvious. It symbolizes the flow of life, the constant change of the universe, spiritual knowledge and creative visualization. It is also said to have a generall positive effect on your wellbeing.

5


Sillimanite is one of three aluminosilicate polymorphs, the other two being andalusite and kyanite. Sillimanite is named after the American chemist Benjamin Silliman (1779–1864). It was first described in 1824 for an occurrence in Chester, Middlesex County, Connecticut, USA. Sillimanite has a hardness of 6.5-7.5 on the Moh's scale. A common variety of sillimanite is known as fibrolite, so named because the mineral appears like a bunch of fibres twisted together when viewed in thin section or even by the naked eye. Both the fibrous and traditional forms of sillimanite are common in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks.

Sillimanite has been found in Brandywine Springs, New Castle County, Delaware, USA, where it was named as the state mineral.

Natural sillimanite rocks cut into the required shape and size are used mainly in glass industries, and is the best raw material for the manufacture of high alumina refractories or alumina bricks. But its use on large scale is not possible due to its fine grading and high cost.

5


Sodalite is a rich royal blue tectosilicate mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque, crystals are usually transparent to translucent. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne, nosean, lazurite and tugtupite. Although it was discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland, sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario, Canada. Sodalite is mostly known for its blue colour, but it may also be grey, yellow, green, or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. The more uniformly blue material is used in jewellery, where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli, sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue colour is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone.

Sodalite gives you health, strenght and happiness.

5


Spectrolite is a less common variety of labradorite feldspar. It exhibits a richer range of colours than labradorite (that shows only tones of blue-grey-green) and high labradorescence. Spectrolite was initially a brand name for material mined in Finland, but is sometimes incorrectly used to describe labradorite whenever a richer display of colours is present, regardless of locality: for example, labradorite with the spectrolite play of colours has also reported from Madagascar. The difference between Finnish spectrolite and other labradorites is that crystals of the former have considerably stronger colourfulness than other labradorites, caused by the black base colour of spectrolite feldspar; other labradorites have mostly a transparent base colour.

The Finnish geologist Aarne Laitakari (1890–1975) described the peculiar stone and sought its origin for years when his son Pekka discovered a deposit at Ylämaa in south-eastern Finland. The Finnish stone exhibits a uniquely vivid iridescence and a full spectrum of colours, hence the name "spectrolite" was coined by the elder Laitakari. The quarrying of spectrolite began after the Second World War and has become a significant local industry. In 1973 the first workshop in Ylämaa began cutting and polishing spectrolite for jewels.

5


Spessartine (or spessartite) is manganese aluminium garnet. Its name is derived from Spessart in Bavaria. It occurs most often in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low grade metamorphic phyllites. Spessartine of an orange-yellow is found in Madagascar. Violet-red spessartines are found in rhyolites in Colorado and Maine.

Red garnets were the most commonly used gemstones in the Late Antique Roman world, and the Migration Period art of the "barbarian" peoples who took over the territory of the Western Empire. They were especially used inlaid in gold cells in the cloisonné technique, a style often just called garnet cloisonné, found from Anglo-Saxon England, as at Sutton Hoo, to the Black Sea.

Pure garnet crystals are still used as gemstones. The gemstone varieties occur in shades of green, red, yellow and orange. In the USA it is known as the birthstone for January. It is the state mineral of Connecticut, New York's gemstone, and star garnet (garnet with rutile asterisms) is the state gemstone of Idaho.

5


Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. Its hardness is 8, its specific gravity is 3.5-4.1 and it is transparent to opaque with a vitreous to dull luster. It may be colourless, but is usually various shades of red, blue, green, yellow, brown or black. There is a unique natural white spinel, now lost, that surfaced briefly in what is now Sri Lanka. Some spinels are among the most famous gemstones: Among them is the Black Prince's Ruby and the 'Timur ruby' in the British Crown Jewels, and the 'cote de Bretagne' formerly from the French Crown jewels. The Samarian Spinel is the largest known spinel in the world, weighing 500 carats (100 g).

The transparent red spinels were called spinel-rubies or balas rubies. In the past, before the arrival of modern science, spinels and rubies were equally known as rubies. After the 18th century the word ruby was only used for the red gem variety of the mineral corundum and the word spinel became used. "Balas" is derived from Balascia, the ancient name for Badakhshan, a region in Afghanistan. The Badakshan Province was for centuries the main source for red and pink spinels.

Spinel has long been found in the gemstone-bearing gravel of Sri Lanka and in limestones of the Badakshan Province in modern day Afghanistan and of Mogok in Burma. Recently gem quality spinels were also found in Vietnam, Tanzania, Kenya and Madagascar. Spinel is found as a metamorphic mineral, and also as a primary mineral in rare mafic igneous rocks; in these igneous rocks, the magmas are relatively deficient in alkalis relative to aluminium, and aluminium oxide may form as the mineral corundum or may combine with magnesia to form spinel. This is why spinel and ruby are often found together.

5


Spodumen is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate and is a lithium source. It occurs colourless to yellowish, purplish (Kunzite), yellow-green or emerald green (Hiddenite) with prismatic crystals, which often are large. A find of a 14.3 m (47 ft) crystal have been reported from the Black Hills in South Dakota, United States. The crystals are typically heavily striated parallel to the main axis. The crystal faces are often etched and full of small triangular pits/markings.

5


Sugilite (a.k.a lavulite) is a relatively rare pink to purple cyclosilicate mineral which crystallizes in the hexagonal system with prismatic crystals. The crystals are rarely found and the form is usually massive. It has a Mohs hardness of 5.5 to 6.5 and a specific gravity of 2.75 to 2.80. It is mostly translucent.

Sugilite was first described in 1944 by the Japanese petrologist Ken-ichi Sugi (1901–1948) after findings on Iwagi Islet, Japan. It is found in a similar environment at Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada. In the Wessels mine in Northern Cape Province of South Africa, sugilite is mined from a strata-bound manganese deposit. It is also reported from Liguria and Tuscany, Italy; New South Wales, Australia and Madhya Pradesh, India

Sugilite is considered one of the most significant love stones. It represents spiritual love and wisdom - learning and protecting in the search for the spiritual, loving and forgiving. Sugilite helps protect the soul against shock and trauma, spreads light in the darkest situations and counteract hostility. It encourages positive thoughts and release the emotional turbulence. By healers, Sugilite is used for dyslexia, as a pain killers and against motor disorders.

 

Note: The mineral is commonly pronounced with a soft "g", as in "ginger". However, as with most minerals, its pronunciation is intended to be the same as the person it is named after; in this case, the Japanese name Sugi has a hard "g", as in "geese".

5


Tanzanite, that was named by Tiffany & Co., is the blue/violet variety of the mineral zoisite. It was discovered by Manuel de Souza, a tailor and part-time gold prospector living in Arusha, in the Mererani Hills of Manyara Region in Northern Tanzania in 1967, near Mount Kilimanjaro. He assumed that the mineral was olivine (peridot) but after soon realizing it wasn't, he concluded it was "dumortierite", a blue non-gem mineral, but later mineralogists at several Gemological Institutes have identified the new gem as a blue variety of the mineral zoisite. The Gemological Institute of America classifies tanzanite as a Type I gemstone, meaning it is normally eye-clean. Tanzanite is extremely rare,still found only in the Mererani Hills. It is noted for its remarkably strong trichroism, appearing alternately sapphire blue, violet and burgundy depending on crystal orientation.Tanzanite can also appear differently when viewed under alternate lighting conditions. The blues appear more evident when subjected to fluorescent light and the violet hues can be seen readily when viewed under incandescent illumination. Tanzanite is usually a reddish brown in its rough state, requiring artificial heat treatment to bring out the blue violet of the stone. Gems with eye-visible inclusions will be traded at deep discounts. Rarely, gem-quality tanzanite will heat to a green primary hue, most always accompanied by a blue or violet secondary hue. These green tanzanite have some meaningful value in the collector market, but are seldom of interest to commercial buyers.

In 2002, the American Gem Trade Association chose Tanzanite as a December birthstone, the first change to their birthstone list since 1912. From 1967 until the mines were nationalised by the Tanzanian Government in 1971, the estimated production was two million carats. In June 2003, the Tanzanian government introduced legislation banning the export of unprocessed tanzanite to India (like many gemstones, most tanzanite is cut in Jaipur). The ban has been rationalized as an attempt to spur development of local processing facilities, thereby boosting the economy and recouping profits. This ban was phased in over a two-year period, until which time only stones over 0.5 grams were affected.[citation needed] In 2010, the government of Tanzania banned the export of rough stones weighing more than one gram.

Tanzanite is believed to be reassuring and give you patience. It makes you think before talking. Is also considered good for eye discomfort and headaches.

5


Thulite (a.k.a rosaline or pink zoisite) is an translucent, crystalline or massive pink manganese-bearing variety of the mineral zoisite. It was first discovered at a place called Sauland in Telemark, Norway in 1820. It is named after the mythical island of Thule in the belief that the island is Norway. Thulite is often mottled with white calcite and occurs as veins and fracture fillings transecting many types of rock. Sometimes, Thulite can sometimes be confused with rhodonite.

Thulite is also found in Austria, North Carolina, USA South Africa and Australia. A new, more recent find of high quality thulite was discovered near Riverside in Okanogan County, Washington, USA. Thulite is used as a gemstone and carving material in the manufacture of jewellery and ornamental objects.

Thulite radiates a gentle and caring energy from the heart which will help you to boost your self esteem. It will help you to achieve an altered state of mind and spiritual union through meditation. It strengthens your senses and blocks unwanted influences. Thulite provides harmony in your relationship with yourself, others, and society at large. It inspires you to cherish and love yourself, it relieves loneliness, create passion and increases sexual attraction.

5


Tiger’s Eye (a.k.a Tigers eye or Tiger eye) is a chatoyant gemstone that is usually a metamorphic rock that is a golden to red-brown colour, with a silky luster. A member of the quartz group, it is a classic example of pseudomorphous replacement by silica of fibrous crocidolite (blue asbestos).

The gems are usually cut en cabochon in order to best display their chatoyancy. Red stones are brought about through gentle heat treatment. Dark stones have had their colours improved and been artificially lightened using nitric acid treatments. It  mostly comes from South Africa and East Asia. Notable sources of tiger's eye include the United States, South Africa, Australia, Canada, Korea, China, Brazil, Namibia, India, Spain and Burma.

Tiger’s eye should not confused with Tiger iron, wich is an South African rock composed chiefly of tiger's eye, red jasper, and black hematite.

Tiger's eye is considered to improve your confidence in order to achieve the goals you have set. It also help you discover your own resources and how they can best be put to use. Tiger’s eye is a protective stone that brings good luck and success, often in cash. Roman soldiers often wore it to protect them in battle.

5


Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. Pure topaz is colourless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine, yellow, pale gray, reddish-orange, or blue brown. It can also be made white, pale green, blue, gold, pink (rare), reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. Orange topaz, also known as precious topaz, is the traditional November birthstone, the symbol of friendship, and the state gemstone for the US state of Utah. Imperial topaz is yellow, pink (rare, if natural) or pink-orange. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue, sometimes even violet. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow, gold, pink or violet coloured. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Typically, colourless, gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more desired darker blue. Mystic topaz is colourless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect.

Topaz can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia, in Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Pakistan, Italy, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, Flinders Island, Australia, Nigeria and the United States. Colourless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County, Texas but there is no commercial mining in that area. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. The Topaz of Aurungzebe, observed by Jean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157.75 carats. The American Golden Topaz, a more recent gem, measured a massive 22,892.5 carats.

Topaz gives you strenght and health.

5


Tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals, and a six-member ring cyclosilicate having a trigonal crystal system. Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. Magnesium-rich tourmalines, dravites, are generally restricted to schists and marble.

Tourmaline has the widest variety of colours among all gemstones. The colour ranges from  black, blue, green, red, yellow, pink, etc. Hence, it is often mistaken for many different gemstones. Some of the historically most famous “rubies” has proven to actually be rubelliter, i.e. ruby-like tourmalines. An example of such a “ruby”, which is actually a tourmaline, is the stone in a piece of jewelry that Gustav III donated to the Russian Empress Catherine the great. It is 4 cm long and weighs 255 carat (51 g). The jewellery is now available in Kremlmuseet in Moscow. The colour richness is due to that even minimal changes in the chemical composition gives rise to very large colour changes. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic, in that they change colour when viewed from different directions; a beautiful colour-effect when the stone is slowly turned. Bi-coloured and multicoloured crystals are common, reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization.The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Turmali" or "Thoramalli", which means “mult coloured stone”, and applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka.

Major deposits of tourmaline is found in Sri Lanka, Brazil, Madagascar, Afghanistan and Mozambique (red and bi-coloured stones). Smaller deposits is found in Angola, Australia, Burma, India, Rhodesia, Namibia, Tanzania, Thailand, the former Soviet Union, and in the United States.

Tourmaline is a durable stone that can withstand wear well and therefore is an excellent piece of jewelry stone. It gives you happiness, strength and health.

5


Triphane is a synonym for Spodumene, used in French mineralogical literature in the 19-and 20th century. During the latter part of the 20th century, it has been used for colourless or yellowish spodumene, especially in the United States. Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminum hydride inosilicate and a source of lithium. It occurs as colourless to yellowish, mauve or lilac Kunzite, yellow-green or emerald green Hiddenite, with prismatic crystals, often of great size. Occasionaly, giant crystals up to 14.3 m has been found in South Dakota, United States.

Spodumene was first described in the 19th after finds at Utö in the Stockholm Archipelago. The name comes from the Greek spodumenos, which means "burned to ashes", due to the opaque, livid appearance of material processed for use in industry. Spodumene occurs in lithium rich Granites and associated minerals are quartz, albite, petalit, eucryptite, Lepidolit and Beryl. Transparent spodumene has long been used as a gemstone with names like Kunzite and Hiddenite noted for their strong pleochroism (different colours at different angles). Deposits can be found in Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Canada and the United States.

5


Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gem and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue. In recent times, turquoise, like most other opaque gems, has been devalued by the introduction of treatments, imitations, and synthetics onto the market.

The substance has been known by many names, but the word turquoise, which dates to the 16th century, is derived from an Old French word for "Turkish", because the mineral was first brought to Europe from Turkey, from the mines in historical Khorasan Province of Persia. Turquoise was used by the Egyptians and was mined by them in the Sinai Peninsula, called "Country of Turquoise" by the native Monitu.

Even the finest of turquoise is fracturable, reaching a maximum hardness of just under 6, or slightly more than window glass. The Southwest United States is a significant source of turquoise; Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada are (or were) especially rich. The deposits of California and New Mexico were mined by pre-Columbian Native Americans using stone tools, some local and some from as far away as central Mexico. Cerrillos, New Mexico is thought to be the location of the oldest mines; prior to the 1920s, the state was the country's largest producer; it is more or less exhausted today. Only one mine in California, located at Apache Canyon, operates at a commercial capacity today. China has been a minor source of turquoise for 3,000 years or more. Gem-quality material, in the form of compact nodules, is found in the fractured, silicified limestone of Yunxian and Zhushan,

In many cultures of the Old and New Worlds, this gemstone has been esteemed for thousands of years as a holy stone, a bringer of good fortune or a talisman.

The Turquoise gives you hapiness, love, health and protection.

5


Unakite was first discovered in the Unakas mountains of North Carolina, the United States, from which it gets its name. It is an altered granite composed of pink orthoclase**** feldspar, green epidote, and generally colourless quartz. It exists in various shades of green and pink and is usually mottled in appearance. A good quality unakite is considered a semiprecious stone; it will take a good polish and is often used in jewelry as beads or cabochons and other lapidary work such as eggs, spheres and animal carvings. It is also referred to as epidotized or epidote granite. In some of the Blue Ridge occurrences, an epidotized augen gneiss is present exhibiting foliation structures. Unakite can be found as pebbles and cobbles from glacial drift in the beach rock on the shores of Lake Superior. It also occurs in Virginia where it is found in the river valleys after having been washed down from the Blue Ridge Mountains. Unakite is not limited to the United States, and has also been reported in South Africa, Sierra Leone, Brazil, and China. Some material labeled unakite lacks the feldspar and is more properly called epidosite, and is also used as beads and cabochons.

Unakit will help you to get rid of addictions but also has strong healing properties and takes hold of the cause of the disease. For better sleep, place a bit Unakit under your pillow.

 

**** Orthoclase is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. Ortoklas are formed at high temperature, and the temperature is sodium aluminosilicate (albite) soluble. While slowly cooling within the earth, sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution, enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. Occurs in many igneous rocks. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture," because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. Alternate names are potassium feldspar and K-feldspar. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness.

5


Zirkon (not to be confused with zirconia, cubic zirconia, or zirconium*****.) is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. The name derives from the Persian zargun (زرگون), meaning golden-colored, but the natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, blue, and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond and are also known as "Matura diamond".

Zircon occurs as a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks (as primary crystallization products), in metamorphic rocks and as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. Large zircon crystals are rare. Their average size in granite rocks is about 0.1–0.3 mm, but they can also grow to sizes of several centimeters, especially in mafic pegmatites and carbonatites.

In geological settings, the development of pink, red, and purple zircon occurs after hundreds of millions of years, if the crystal has sufficient trace elements to produce color centers. Color in this red or pink series is annealed in geological conditions above the temperature about 350 °C. Australia leads the world in zircon mining, producing 37% of the world total. Zircons from Jack Hills in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, have yielded U-Pb ages up to 4.404 billion years, interpreted to be the age of crystallization, making them the oldest minerals so far dated on Earth. Many cut gem-quality zircons originates from Vietnam and Cambodia.

 

***** Cubic Zircon (Zirconium), CZ, is a synthetic material used as substitutes for diamonds. It is heavier than a diamond of the same size and not as hard, 8.5 on the Mohs scale compared to 10 for diamond. Due to its low cost and durability, it has since the beginning of production in 1976 was an important competitor of diamond. The only threat to its position is the chemically produced diamond Moissanite,

5


Zoisite is a calcium aluminium hydroxy sorosilicate belonging to the epidote group of minerals, named after the Carniolan naturalist Sigmund Zois von Edelstein (Žiga Zois). Zois realized that this was an unknown mineral when it was brought to him by a mineral dealer, Simon Prešern, in 1797, whou had found it in Saualpe in Carinthia. It was first known as saualpite when described in 1805.

Zoisite occurs as prismatic, orthorhombic crystals or in massive form, being found in metamorphic and pegmatitic rock. Zoisite may be blue to violet, green, brown, pink, yellow, gray, or colourless. It has a vitreous luster and a conchoidal to uneven fracture.

In Tanzania, anyolite is a metamorphic rock composed of green Zoisite with black tschermakite and rubinkristaller. These rubies are not of gemstone quality but still gives the paint a striking contrast to the Green zoisiten and decorative stones. They are called Ruby zoisite (Ruby in Zoisite).

Sources of zoisite include Tanzania (tanzanite), Kenya (anyolite), Norway (thulite), Switzerland, Austria, India, Pakistan, and the U.S. state of Washington.

Zoisite drive away laziness and indifference as it stimulates creativity and development of your abilities and talents. Zoisite is a rock of success, and a stone for those of you who want to develop your intellect and let the thought process support progress in all areas of life.

5


 

Copyright © 2015 Pretty Ogr
Latest update: 22 september 2015